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Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)

What is it measuring?

The survey covers a topics related to economic well-being in the United States, including family dynamics, education, assets, insurance, childcare, food security, and public program participation. Although it does not ask about gig or non-traditional work, it does include a measure of multiple job holding.

What does it tell us?

8.3 percent of employed adults hold more than one job. Current Population Survey estimates are approximately 5 percent.

How is it collected?

SIPP is a household survey with panels lasting four years, meaning it can track changes within households over the period of participation. It began in 1983.

Who collects it?

The US Census Bureau.


SIPP is often used to measure the impacts of public assistance programs. The absence of questions about work arrangements limits its applicability to the gig economy. However, it includes a range of topics that few other data sources address, and remains largely under utilized in conversations about the changing nature of work.

How to access this data?

SIPP data is publicly available. Different components are available from different sources, but the Census Bureau maintains a guide to finding the data you need.


Multiple Jobholders in the United States: 2013; 2019; Julia Beckhusen; US Census Bureau;